Seizures and epilepsies are called by a joint name seizure disorders. In terms of seizure, it is often associated with a sudden brief alteration in the function of the brain while epilepsy is related to CNS disorder which brings in a prone to recurrent seizures. Although seizures display themselves in a different way from individual to individual, they tend to trait a line within a patient.
Seniors with cerebrovascular disease are exposed to the highest rate of getting seizure disorders, especially after they have suffered a hemorrhagic stroke. Usually, the seizures symptoms manifest within the first 24 to 48 hours of a stroke and few patients can even be conflicted by epilepsy. It is suggested that clinically silent strokes may be a main cause of late-onset epilepsy.
However, a hospital-based study has shown that a large range of drugs can not only save lives and get rid of disease but also bring in seizures to the patients. The seizures caused by drugs are called drug-induced seizures. As the ageing process will bring about many series healthy problems, the trend of drug abuse shows no signs of decline among the elderly, especially the abuse of psychotropic medications, which are the most common cause of drug-induced seizures. In addition, bronchodilators, insulin, isoniazid, and lidocaine can lead to multiple seizures. Besides, antipsychotic therapy is not very safe because if it is not performed in a right way, it can become the main cause of drug-induced seizures. If the patient has already been conflicted by a pre-existing seizure disorder, an abnormal electroencephalogram or a pre existing pathology of the CNS or head trauma, the risk will increase further. Besides, if the doses are too high or titration is too rapid, it will also make ways to drug-induced seizures to come into the body. Among all the antipsychotics, clozapine and chlorpromazine carry the highest risk potential and olanzapine may also be closely relevant to the risk based on reports.
Antidepressants drugs vary in their likelihood to cause risk of seizures in therapy. For instance, patients who take 450mg or less bupropion every day will have 0.4% of opportunity to catch drug-induced seizures and bupropion-taken is totally forbidden if the patients had seizure disorder before. Moreover, tetracyclic antidepressant maprotiline can also lead to a higher incidence of seizures than tricyclic antidepressants.
Like young children, traumatic brain injury is also one of the most frequent causes of seizure disorders, which start within the first one to two years following injury. Seizure activity can cause intracranial pressure and make worse brain damage, so it needs to be treated as soon as possible. Additionally, heatstroke, one of the most common diseases in the seniors can increase the incidence of seizure disorders, too. And that injectable benzodiazepines are always in great need during its treatment so as to keep seizures away from attacking the body. What’s more, hypomagnesemia and miscellaneous issues are also the main cause of seizure disorders. Therefore, old people should pay attention to their daily diet, too.
The elderly, being susceptible to disease, are more likely to be attacked by seizures disorders with serious conditions as young children. And the annually increasing population of the elderly group has made up a large proportion of people who suffer seizures terribly.
The most common seizures occur in older people are simple partial, complex partial, and secondarily generalized tonic clonic. As typical high-risk patients, people who are above 65 years old can be difficult to be recognized if they are experiencing seizures in early stage. For one thing, memory loss with decreased ability to think is common among them, which add considerable difficulty to judge if they are conflicted by seizures or other diseases. For another, high incidence of dementia in the old make it success rate to obtain a clear true history of the seizure-like event from what they describe go into almost zero percent. Most importantly, symptoms of seizures are usually not strong enough to attract others’ attention except that of some training people or clinicians. Therefore, it is a must for all of us to learn more about this terrible disease.
Quite a few of the old people who suffer seizures do have some signs in the earlier stage, such as aura, a distinctive sensation or visual disturbance. In other words, if the old people realize that they begin to smell or taste in a different way they did in the past, then they have to be cautious because these physical condition changes can become obvious indications to the existence of an epileptic episode. Besides, some of them have a nervous feeling in their stomach. So it is suggested that if the above mentioned symptoms occur to the old in a family, other family member should be concerned with them and take them to the doctor if necessary. In fact, a large part of patients will sense a seizure is about to break out in their body because the feeling is so intense and strong.
Nearly all seizures occur just for a short while, a few seconds or a few minutes, after which people may ache in their heads as well as their muscles. Their sensations will still not function properly and it is more likely that they will loss their train of thought accompanied and feel extremely tired though they have done nothing heavy. The postical state of seizure can exert terrible effects on the body for very long time, which will give a patient a pathological look.
Cerebrum can be divided into several parts and each part manages different behaviors, including tasting controlled by insula, seeing controlled by occipital lobe, speaking and convulsion, which will occur if a large part of the brain are affected. When the certain part is damaged, patient will loss the ability to taste, speak, see, etc. Apart from these symptoms, some old patients go numb easily accompanied with tingling in their body. They can loss consciousness and fail to give a response to the surroundings.
It is truth that to eliminate the causes of seizure disorders whenever possible is an effective treatment to the disease. However, to correctly identify seizure disorders can be often too difficult. Therefore, appropriate treatment is essential to get seizure disorders under control. Treatments of some common types of seizure disorders are as follow:
Most seizures are not very cruel and they will not last for a very long time, so emergency drug treatment is not needed in terms of this type. Acute seizures and status epileptics are two types of seizure disorders which will last for over five minutes before they begin to calm down. Therefore, drugs are required to make the seizures come to an end as soon as possible. Besides, the patient’s breathing condition should simultaneously be under closed observation so as to guarantee that the patient is exposed to enough oxygen. During the process of taking drugs, IV access and lorazepam are given at a certain rate. Some patients may need to take a larger doses of this drugs, but it should be strictly followed the doctors’ advice because different doses of drugs can sometimes perform in opposite effects. If the dose of lorazepam is up to 8 mg, then another drug, fosphenytoin should be added.
There are different drugs to use to treat different types of seizure disorders. Phenobarbital and phenytoin are effective in treating not only generalized seizures but also simple partial seizures, such as status epilepticus. The average doses of this medicine are 3 to 5 mg per day depending on the constitutions of each patient. And the averaged dose of phenytoin is 4 to 7 mg per day. Both of the medicines can cause a group of signs and symptoms that together which are characteristic or indicative of seizure disorders, such as sedation and ataxia.
Valproic acid is more widely used than the above mentioned two and apart from generalized and partial seizure disorders, it is also an ideal drug treats some myoclonic epilepsies or some mixed seizure disorders. In terms of absence epilepsy, ethosuximide is regarded as one of the perfect choice for the treatment.
Epilepsy surgery is a final choice of treatment for patients who still suffer seizure disorders with any drugs treatment. Before the surgery is done, enough preparation is needed to make it a success. First of all, patients are tested professionally at specialized epilepsy centers. This is an important step because test report can become guidance for the doctor to tell whether surgery can help to control seizure disorders or not. The surgery is performed to help to remove the defect in the brain which is identified as the cause of seizure disorders. The surgery can eliminate seizures or at least relieve the activity of seizures and make them under control. Many people have to take anticonvulsants after the surgery but they can usually take lower doses than they took before. Sometimes, stimulation of the vague nerve serves as one of the treatment of seizure disorders, too
It is said that epilepsy, a serious medical condition that affects the brain and makes patients suddenly shake in an uncontrolled way or become unconscious, is the most knotty neurologic medical problem getting the medical community stumped for the best treatment of it, specially for young children. Nowadays, two out of one hundred children may catch febrile seizures while one out of one hundred may unfortunately be attacked by inborn epilepsy.
The clinical manifestations of seizure disorders can tremendously differ between adults and children because of the age gap. And children, who have developing immune systems, are regarded to be more vulnerable to seizure disorders. In fact, children who suffer seizure disorders at early age can hardly be recognized and sometimes their abnormal behaviors, such as spasm, are simply mistaken for ordinary conditioned reflex. A lack of acquaintance with this terrible disease is a main reason why so many children miss the best time to undergo some necessary therapies, which can reduce their pain to the most.
Generally speaking, childhood seizure forces its target’s body to shake in a strange way, often accompanied by a sudden short attack of pain. Any attempts to control this movement by patient himself will be just in vain and he can do nothing other than bear all the sufferings seizure has brought to him. And it is the cortical neurons which lead to all these strange, excessive discharges, making some obvious alterations in human body’s function or behavior.
Therefore, how to judge symptoms of seizure disorders among children is crucial for their successful treatment. Some children like to stare things at the early stage of the disease and it should attract parents’ attention if they find their children fail to control their staring. Besides, some of the children who have caught seizures may fall down suddenly in an unusual high frequency. They can’t tell why they will fall down and everything seems to happen automatically without any signs. This is one of the most typical manifestations of seizure disorders and one of the easiest signs escaping adults’ notice.
In addition, the behaviors alteration is the core symptom of seizure disorders. For example, if a child has caught the disease, it will become impossible for him to maintain his origin characteristic. In contrast, he is more likely to become overactive and be prone to excessive excitement about some news, etc. What’s more, sometimes even parents angrily scold their child for being too naughty, the child can have a hard time calming down and behaving himself with seizure doing great harm to his cortical neurons. Additionally, some children can become too aggressive and like to make autonomic disturbances.
All in all, each parent has a great responsibility of their children health, which plays a significant role to the hope of the entire family. And good sensibility to the micro change of children’s daily behaviors is a must to recognize seizure disorders promptly and get their children cured as soon as possible.
Klonopin drugs are prescription drugs applied lonely or with additional medicinal drugs to care for, Definite cases of seizure disorders in grownups and youngsters
Panic disorder either veneration or without veneration of clear places (agoraphobia) in grownups. They are not experienced if Klonopin drugs are harmless or hard-hitting in caring for panic disorder in kids less than eighteen years old.
Who ought not to consume Klonopin? Do not consume Klonopin if you:
Are hypersensitive to benzodiazepines, Have crucial liver disease; Have an eyeball disease called off keen narrow angle glaucoma. Giving up Klonopin suddenly may campaign dangerous troubles. Klonopin may dull your imagining and motor accomplishments. Don’t drive, control arduous machinery, or do additional grievous actions until you cognize however Klonopin strikes you.
Don’t take alcoholic beverage or consume additional doe’s drugs that could form you sleepy-eyed or dizzy when consuming Klonopin until you speak to your caregiver. While acquired with alcoholic beverage or does drugs that stimulate drowsiness or vertigo, Klonopin could form your drowsiness or dizziness more high-risk.
How ought I to consume Klonopin?
Consume Klonopin really as your health care supplier mentions you. Klonopin drugs are obtainable as a pill or as a simply decomposing pill (wafer).Do not give up consuming Klonopin without initial discussion with your health care giver. Quitting Klonopin abruptly may stimulate dangerous troubles. Klonopin pills should be consumed with water and swallowed up altogether.
Klonopin wafers may be consumed with or without water.
Do not open up the pocket until you’re in order to consume Klonopin.
Later unfolding the pocket, disease backs the bilk on the blister pack.
Don’t press the wafer through with the baffle.
Later opening up the blister pack, with dry out hands, remove the wafer and put them in your mouth. It will disappear rapidly.
Whenever you consume a bit much Klonopin, call up your caregiver or local envenom Control Center immediately.
What are the executable fallouts of Klonopin?
See “What is the most significant fact I ought cognize regarding Klonopin?”
The Klonopin may likewise stimulate your captures bechance more often or form them riskier. Call up your caregiver immediately if your captures relapse when consuming Klonopin.
The basic side effects of Klonopin include:
Troubles with walking and coordination
Troubles with remembering
One of the most important things to take into consideration is the principle of long-term treatment. Different patients need different drugs. Whatever drugs are used, the doses and kinds should be strictly following the doctors’ advice. Otherwise, it will become dangerous to take the drugs because the same drugs can sometimes cause or cure seizure disorders depending on the doses.
Some drugs, such as phenytoin and valproate, can reach the appropriate range very rapidly. Others, such as lamotrigine and topiramate, must begin with a relavely low dose and increase gradually over several weeks before finally reaching to the standard therapeutic dose. As tolerance of the drug varies from individual to individual, the dose of the same drug is not actually the same in different people. If seizures continue, the daily dose has to go up by small increments because too much drugs-taken means more side effects will be created. People’s constitutions differ so some patients may develop toxicity during their drug taking treatment. Reducing the dose is always needed whenever toxicity happens and another drug should be added to operate with the previous drug to fight seizure disorders. Usually, patients who need two drugs treatment must be under close observation. Two-drugs-taken treatment is all in all, much more complicated than single-drug-taken treatment, which can neglect the interaction of the drugs. If two drugs interact too strongly, it can result in metabolic derangement, making the initial, ineffective drug tapered and withdrawn. Therefore, multiple drugs treatment is seldom used to treat due to its high incidence of side effects, poor adherence, and drug interactions.
It is inappropriate to stop taking drugs once seizures are controlled because of the risk of relapse. And patients should continue taking drugs for at least 2 years until they finally become seizure-free. In general, childhood seizure and more than one drug treatment can increase the likelihood for a relapse. In that case, patients need to go to the doctors for further treatment.
When it comes to drugs, no one can deny the fact that adverse drug effects can have negative impact on patients’ health. The most common side effects is an allergic scarlatiniform or morbilliform rash. And neither of them is totally safe during pregnancy. There are some points that patients should keep in mind in order to reduce the adverse drug effects in the lowest rate. For example, patients taking valproate should have regular liver function tests while patients taking carbamazepine should have CBC monitored regularly for the first year of therapy.
With regard to surgery treatment dealing with the stubborn seizures, extensive testing and monitoring are in great need. And anticonvulsants-taken is needed by some patients depending on their constitutions. Some people need to take this drug to be seizures-free while some people can automatically become seizures-free without taking anticonvulsant. And patients should make it clear which problems they should extremely pay much attention to by asking their doctors. Vagus nerve stimulation, an adjunct to drug therapy, can lead to deepening of the voice, cough, and hoarseness.
A clear picture of the cause is an essential step to give appropriate and prompt treatment. And knowing how the seizures have triggered provides guidance to the doctors which medicine to be used and how much to be used to tailor the patients’ constitution.
The type of causes can depend on the age of the patients who are conflicted with seizure disorders. And that there are many types of causes of seizure disorders. They are high fever, brain infections, metabolic derangement, inadequate oxygen supply to the brain, structural damage to the brain, fluid accumulation in the brain, prescription drugs, recreational drugs, withdrawal of a drug after heavy use, exposure to toxins.
Some patients have congenital seizure disorders which have nothing to do with the surrounding. Some are born to be more vulnerable to the seizure disorders. Both of the cases are controlled by some genes, which play a significant role in the recurrence of seizure disorders. Besides, oxygen deficit, infections and poor nutrition during pregnancy can also provoke seizure disorders in new born infants because the three can exert negative influence on the development of the brain of the baby. In some severe cases, it can also result in permanent damage of the brain and even cerebral palsy.
Besides, poison is a scarring thing which can increase the incidence of seizure disorders. It contains too high level of carbon monoxide, toxins and so on. To some extents, nearly all drugs can become poisons depending on their doses, including those used to cure seizure disorders. Therefore, patients should strictly follow the doctor’s advice in terms of taking antidepressants or other prescription medications.
In addition, the negative effects of any kinds of brain damage should not be underestimated as it may leave tricky legacies to the patients even after the injury has been completely cured, such as seizure disorders. So it is recommended that people who have suffered this experience should go to the doctor for completely physical checkup. Moreover, alcohol-addiction can increase the incidence of alcoholism, which can become another most popular cause of seizure disorders. Brain tumors does not only increase the risk of getting cancer but also getting seizure disorders due to its likelihood to change the functioning of the brain. Other diseases including strokes and heart attacks can develop seizures because they rob the brain of oxygen. These are two of the most common causes of seizure disorders in the elderly. Besides, onset of seizures can make its grand entry to the body if AIDS, hydrocephalus and menegitis attack the body. Patients of this disease should be more cautious about their healthy condition.
Triggers such as insomnia, exposure to quick flashes of light or computers and too much pressure can become contributing factors to cause the epilepsy to begin. Most of you may have at least one of the bad habits which can spark a seizure and you have to make every effort quit the bad habits. It will help to improve the quality of life and keep series illnesses away from your daily life.
A large proportion of the patients happen to be conflicted with only one type of seizure while others can catch more than one type of seizures. And the symptoms vary depending on the various types of seizure.
Partial seizures, as its name implies, occur when only one side of the brain is affected. This type of seizures can be subdivided into simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures. In simple partial seizures, the beginning affected area is not very large, often just a small area of the brain. And that the abnormal electrical discharges will keep active within the small area and destroy the tissue of the area. That can explain why patients suffer pain in certain part of their body, such as arms, legs and so on. This is because the area which controls this part has been affected by seizures. All in all, though this is called simple partial seizures, never can you underestimate the impact they will make on healthy condition, regarding a simple form of seizure without timing medical treatment can end up growing in to a complex one, involving much more medical care to keep them under control.
With regard to complex partial seizures, it is the same as the simple partial seizures that it affects a small area of the brain first. But unlike the simple one which just keep active within that small area it originally domains, abnormal electrical discharges effects will never be satisfied with a small occupied area but rather crazy about capturing other nearby area. Patients of this type of seizures usually suffer butterflies in the stomach or lost of touch to the surroundings for about 1 to 2 minutes. During this period, a patient may begin to stare everything around him with a strange way. Some even fail to stop chewing or smacking their lips. The movements of their hands, arms and legs can be completely purposeless and the sounds they utter can totally make nonsense. Sometimes patients can easily lose temper when seizures attack them because they are having a hard time digesting what other people are saying and neither can they accept any kindly help from other people.
Conversation does have a chance to happen to the patients when they suffer seizures but this conversation is not a conversation in a real sense but something not controlled by them. In complex partial seizures, patients lose their judgment of direction so it is dangerous to leave them alone.
In comparison, generalized seizures seem to make more trouble to the healthy condition of the people for a much larger areas of the brain are affected. The abnormal movements as well as a loss of consciousness is much more series than that of partial seizures and can last for short time or a long time. Usually, severe muscle spasms and jerk are typical symptoms of seizures of this type. In addition, people may often be forced to turn their head to one side and fall down very easily without clearly know the reason. Some of them may begin to abuse themselves by clenching their teeth and biting their tongue. Some severe patients will also lose bladder control.
The causes which give rise to the progression of seizure disorders in childhood vary from children of different ages. But a person can pick up seizure disorders just from his heredity, in which any external factor has nothing to do with the cause of disease. With regard to neonates, it is more likely that they will be attacked by seizure if their mothers get series injury or abuse drugs during gestation period. Besides, a birth defect or brain disorder can also underlie the development of epilepsy.
For toddlers under 2 years old, the impact of high fevers cannot be underestimated as it may open doors for seizure disorders. The high fevers are often caused by two typical conditions: heatstroke and infections. So for one thing, parents should remember never expose children directly to sunshine for a long time and take necessary protection measure, such as a sunbonnet or an umbrella. For another, keep their young children away from those who have bad flu or high fevers as toddlers’ immunity is low, making them vulnerable to infection.
Usually, if a child takes up too much nutrients, such as glucose, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B6, or sodium, their risk of being attacked will go higher because it can result in a high blood level of the elements mentioned above. This is the most common metabolic derangements cause of seizure in newborns.
Besides, the development of epilepsy in childhood can be a result from brain injury at or around the time of birth. Thus, mothers should extremely take good care of themselves before giving birth as this is one of the most effective ways to prevent their children from infecting by seizure disorders. If there are members in a family who have seizure disorders or central nervous system malformations, much more attention should pay to the healthy condition of new-born infants due to its high morbidity rate. In conclude, any harm related to the brains can increase the risk of seizure disorders since the harm can bring about inadequate oxygen to make the brain function properly or damage in the structure of the brain.
At present, an abuse of drug has witnessed the considerably high incidence of seizure disorders, especially in the new-born. Generally, high restriction of medical taking is put on pregnant women. Seizures occur to the infants easily when the dosage is too high, or it is not the right medicine. So it is highly recommended that pregnant women take medicine with the dose described and course of treatment. And they must ask their doctors for advice to see if they really need to take the medicine and if the medicine exerts bad influence on their babies’ health. Sometimes it is impossible to tell whether a drug can treat or trigger seizures because the judgment is largely based on the doses of taken. Actually, one medicine can play an important role to bring in or out seizure disorders, such as phenvtoin. Correct dosage can treat seizure disorders while too much dosage can give the opposite performance.